2013 Vol.25(6)

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Review Article
Prognostic value of metabolic tumor burden in lung cancer
Piotr Obara, Yonglin Pu
2013, 25(6): 615-622. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.10
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Accurate prognosis in patients with lung cancer is important for clinical decision making and treatment selection. The TNM staging system is currently the main method for establishing prognosis. Using this system, patients are grouped into one of four stages based on primary tumor extent, nodal disease, and distant metastases. However, each stage represents a range of disease extent and may not on its own be the best reflection of individual patient prognosis. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) can be used to evaluate the metabolic tumor burden affecting the whole body with measures such as metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). MTV and TLG have been shown to be significant prognostic factors in patients with lung cancer, independent of TNM stage. These metabolic tumor burden measures have the potential to make lung cancer staging and prognostication more accurate and quantitative, with the goal of optimizing treatment choices and outcome predictions.
Original Article
Identification of metastasis-associated genes in colorectal cancer through an integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis
Xiaobo Li, Sihua Peng
2013, 25(6): 623-636. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.01
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ObjectiveIdentification of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis genes is one of the most important issues in CRC research. For the purpose of mining CRC metastasis-associated genes, an integrated analysis of microarray data was presented, by combined with evidence acquired from comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data.MethodsGene expression profile data of CRC samples were obtained at Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) website. The 15 important chromosomal aberration sites detected by using CGH technology were used for integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis. Significant Analysis of Microarray (SAM) was used to detect significantly differentially expressed genes across the whole genome. The overlapping genes were selected in their corresponding chromosomal aberration regions, and analyzed by using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Finally, SVM-T-RFE gene selection algorithm was applied to identify metastasis-associated genes in CRC.ResultsA minimum gene set was obtained with the minimum number [14] of genes, and the highest classification accuracy (100%) in both PRI and META datasets. A fraction of selected genes are associated with CRC or its metastasis.ConclusionsOur results demonstrated that integration analysis is an effective strategy for mining cancer-associated genes.
Clinicopathological and prognostic role of MMP-9 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis
Rong Zeng, Lei Duan, Yuke Kong, Yaojun Liang, Xiaolu Wu, Xuequan Wei, Kehu Yang
2013, 25(6): 637-645. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.03
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ObjectiveMany studies reported that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) participated in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and resulted in poor prognosis, however, they all included few patients and had inconsistent results. So we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the correlation between overexpression of MMP-9 and the clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival (OS) of ESCC.MethodsPubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Google Scholar and other databases were searched for relevant studies. The Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to assess the methodological quality of included study and RevMan 5.2 software was used to conduct meta-analysis.ResultsA total of 35 studies were included, and the results of meta-analysis showed that overexpression of MMP-9 was associated with grade of differentiation [well/moderate vs. poor: odds ratio (OR): 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29-0.52; P<0.00001], lymph node metastasis (negative vs. positive: OR: 0.24, 95% CI: 0.16-0.34; P<0.00001), TNM stage (T1/T2 vs. T3/T4: OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14-0.54; P=0.0002), the depth of invasion (T1/T2 vs. T3/T4: OR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.17-0.49; P<0.00001), and vascular invasion of ESCC (negative vs. positive: OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.21-0.58; P<0.0001), and also associated with poor overall survival of ESCC (HR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.32-3.57; P=0.002). Subgroup analysis showed that more than 10% of carcinoma cell staining was associated with significant increase of mortality risk (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.16-5.15; P=0.02), and sensitive analysis suggested that MMP-9 was an independent prognostic factor in ESCC (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.16-1.91; P=0.002).ConclusionsOn the basis of limited evidence, overexpression of MMP-9 may be a potential independent prognosis factor of ESCC patients in Asia, and high-quality studies assessing the prognostic significance of MMP-9 for ESCC patients are still needed.
Evaluation of miR-122-regulated suicide gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma in an orthotopic mouse model
Gang Wang, Xiaoyan Dong, Wenhong Tian, Yue Lu, Jianyan Hu, Yunfan Liu, Jie Yuchi, Xiaobing Wu
2013, 25(6): 646-655. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.07
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ObjectiveIntratumoral administration of adenoviral vector encoding herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene (Ad-TK) followed by systemic ganciclovir (GCV) is an effective approach in treating experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, hepatotoxicity due to unwanted vector spread and suicide gene expression limited the application of this therapy. miR-122 is an abundant, liver-specific microRNA whose expression is decreased in human primary HCC and HCC-derived cell lines. These different expression profiles provide an opportunity to induce tumor-specific gene expression by miR-122 regulation.MethodsBy inserting miR-122 target sequences (miR-122T) in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of TK gene, we constructed adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing miR-122-regulated TK (Ad-TK-122T) and report genes. After intratumoral administration of Ad vectors into an orthotopic miR-122-deficient HCC mouse model, we observed the miR-122-regulated transgene expression and assessed the antitumor activity and safety of Ad-TK-122T.ResultsInsertion of miR-122T specifically down-regulated transgene expression in vitro and selectively protected the miR-122-positive cells from killing by TK/GCV treatment. Insertion of miR-122T led to significant reduction of tansgene expression in the liver without inhibition of its expression in tumors in vivo, resulting in an 11-fold improvement of tumor-specific transgene expression. Intratumoral injection of Ad vectors mediated TK/GCV system led to a vector dosage-dependent regression of tumor. The insertion of miR-122T does not influence the antitumor effects of suicide gene therapy. Whereas mice administrated with Ad-TK showed severe lethal hepatotoxicity at the effective therapeutic dose, no liver damage was found in Ad-TK-122T group.ConclusionsmiR-122-regulated TK expression achieved effective anti-tumor effects and increased the safety of intratumoral delivery of adenovirus-mediated TK/GCV gene therapy for miR-122-deficient HCC.
Expression of CDC42 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics
Ding Ma, Yuan Cheng, Youyi Zhang, Yanli Guo, Zijian Li, Geng Li
2013, 25(6): 656-661. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.04
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ObjectiveThe high expression of cell division cycle 42 protein (CDC42) may be involved in the occurrence and progression of several tumors. However, the expression and function of CDC42 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression of CDC42 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma and its correlation with clinicopathologic characteristics.MethodsThe expression of CDC42 in 162 cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue samples and 33 normal cervical tissue samples was investigated by immunohistochemistry. The CDC42 mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).ResultsThe cervical squamous cell carcinoma group showed a significantly higher CDC42 positive rate, compared to the normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the tissues of stage II-IV carcinoma patients showed higher CDC42 expression levels compared to stage I patients (P=0.05). In addition, the expression of CDC42 was not correlated to age of patients, differentiation degree of cancer cells, or lymph node metastasis (P>0.05). Furthermore, compare with normal cervical tissues, the CDC42 mRNA expression in cervical cancer had no significant difference.ConclusionsCDC42 was up-regulated at protein level, but not mRNA level, in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The high expression of CDC42 was correlated to the clinical stage of the patients, indicating that CDC42 might contribute to the progression of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells
Jinhui Shao, Guihua Feng
2013, 25(6): 662-670. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.05
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ObjectiveTo determine the selective killing effect of oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole on A549 or Hela cells.MethodsProliferation assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, apoptosis detecting, flow cytometry and western blot were performed.ResultsIt was found that treatment with propafenone at the concentration of 0.014 g/L or higher for 48 h could induce apoptosis in Hela cells greatly, while it was not observed in oxytetracycline and metamizole at the concentration of 0.20 g/L for 48 h. Oxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizole all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. The results of LDH assay demonstrated that the drugs at the test range of concentration did not cause necrosis in the cells. Propafenone could elevate the protein level of P53 effectively (P<0.01).ConclusionsOxytetracycline, propafenone and metamizol (dipyrone) all displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of A549 cells. Propafenone also displayed evident inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Hela cells.
Effect of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, TNF-alpha polymorphisms on osteosarcoma: evidences from a meta-analysis
Jianwei Liu, Junli Wang, Weiping Jiang, Yujin Tang
2013, 25(6): 671-678. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.06
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ObjectivePrevious studies have investigated the role of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in carcinogenesis of osteosarcoma, but their results were inconsistent. We aimed to clarify the associations between CTLA-4, TNF-α polymorphism and osteosarcoma risk by using meta-analysis.MethodsWe searched relevant studies without language restriction in PubMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar databases, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and conference literature in humans published prior to March 2013. The strengths of the associations between genetic variants and osteosarcoma risk were estimated by odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).ResultsA total of seven studies with 1,198 osteosarcoma patients and 1,493 controls were selected. Four studies were eligible for CTLA-4 (1,003 osteosarcoma and 1,162 controls), and three studies for TNF-α (195 osteosarcoma and 331 controls). Pooled results showed that rs231775 polymorphism of CTLA-4 was associated with osteosarcoma risk (GG vs. AA: OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.24-2.13; GG + GA vs. AA: OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.21-2.01; AA + GA vs. GG: OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.71-0.97; G vs. A: OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.08-1.36). No significant heterogeneity was observed across the studies. No significant associations were found between rs5742909 polymorphism of CTLA-4 or rs1800629 polymorphism of TNF-α and osteosarcoma risk.ConclusionsThese results suggest that the rs231775 polymorphism of CTLA-4 may play an important role in carcinogenesis of osteosarcoma.
Can statins reduce risk of lung cancer, especially among elderly people? A meta-analysis
Zhantao Deng, Shu Zhang, Long Yi, Shilin Chen
2013, 25(6): 679-688. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.02
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ObjectiveAs the most common cause of cancer mortality throughout the world, lung cancer has drawn people’s attention on how to reduce the risk with chemopreventive ways. Many epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent effects of statins on lung cancer, but some observational studies have showed that statins had protective effect on lung cancer among elderly people. So we preformed this meta-analysis to find whether statins were chemopreventive.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from inception to September, 2013. A total of 23 studies were selected, including 15 observational studies and 8 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Both fixed and random-effects models were used to calculate pooled estimates in primary and sensitivity analyses. We used Q and I2 statistics to assess statistical heterogeneity, and evaluated publication bias by Begg’s test and Egger’s test.ResultsNo association between statins and lung cancer risk was identified either in the meta-analysis among RCTs [relative risk (RR): 0.95, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.85-1.06] or observational studies (RR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.77-1.04). We also selected 6 observational studies that all researched on elderly people. The result of meta-analysis showed that there was still no protective effect between statins and lung cancer among elderly people (RR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.96-1.11).ConclusionsOur results did not support a protective effect of statins on the overall lung cancer risk and the lung cancer risk among elderly people. More well-designed RCTs are needed to enhance our understanding of the chemopreventive effect of statins on lung cancer.
Comparison of RECIST version 1.0 and 1.1 in assessment of tumor response by computed tomography in advanced gastric cancer
Gil-Su Jang, Min-Jeong Kim, Hong-Il Ha, Jung Han Kim, Hyeong Su Kim, Sung Bae Ju, Dae Young Zang
2013, 25(6): 689-694. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.09
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ObjectiveResponse Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline version 1.0 (RECIST 1.0) was proposed as a new guideline for evaluating tumor response and has been widely accepted as a standardized measure. With a number of issues being raised on RECIST 1.0, however, a revised RECIST guideline version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) was proposed by the RECIST Working Group in 2009. This study was conducted to compare CT tumor response based on RECIST 1.1 vs. RECIST 1.0 in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).MethodsWe reviewed 61 AGC patients with measurable diseases by RECIST 1.0 who were enrolled in other clinical trials between 2008 and 2010. These patients were retrospectively re-analyzed to determine the concordance between the two response criteria using the κ statistic.ResultsThe number and sum of tumor diameters of the target lesions by RECIST 1.1 were significantly lower than those by RECIST 1.0 (P<0.0001). However, there was excellent agreement in tumor response between RECIST 1.1 and RECIST 1.0 (κ=0.844). The overall response rates (ORRs) according to RECIST 1.0 and RECIST 1.1 were 32.7% (20/61) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. One patient with partial response (PR) based on RECIST 1.0 was reclassified as stable disease (SD) by RECIST 1.1. Of two patients with SD by RECIST 1.0, one was downgraded to progressive disease and the other was upgraded to PR by RECIST 1.1.ConclusionsRECIST 1.1 provided almost perfect agreement with RECIST 1.0 in the CT assessment of tumor response of AGC.
Risk factors of CMV infection in patients after umbilical cord blood transplantation: a multicenter study in China
Juan Tong, Zimin Sun, Huilan Liu, Liangquan Geng, Changcheng Zheng, Baolin Tang, Kaidi Song, Wen Yao, Xin Liu
2013, 25(6): 695-703. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.08
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ObjectiveThis retrospective study examined risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) and the impact of CMV infection on patient survival.MethodsIn all 176 patients, plasma CMV DNA was negative prior to the transplantation, and examined twice a week for 100 d, and then once weekly for additional 300 d. Preemptive antiviral therapy (ganciclovir or foscarnet) was started in patients with >1,000/mL copies of CMV DNA but no full-blown CMV disease, and was discontinued upon two consecutive negative reports of blood CMV DNA test. The survival and risk factors for CMV infection or disease were examined using logistic regression.ResultsCMV infection developed in 71% (125/176) of the patients, with a median onset of 32 d. Four patients (2.3%) developed CMV disease. Neither the 5-year overall survival (OS) nor event-free survival (EFS) differed significantly in infected patients vs. those with no infection (59.4% vs. 64.8%, P=0.194; 53.4% vs. 59.1%, P=0.226). A stepwise multivariate analysis indicated an association of CMV infection with age, high-dose glucocorticoids, the number of transplanted CD34+ cells, and the number of platelet transfusion, but not with gender, the conditioning regimen, and the day of neutrophil recovery and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD).ConclusionsCMV infection is very common after UCBT, but does not seem to affect long-term survival with preemptive antiviral treatment.
Down-regulated expressions of PPARγ and its coactivator PGC-1 are related to gastric carcinogenesis and Lauren’s classification in gastric carcinoma
Han Yu, Yan Xin
2013, 25(6): 704-714. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.11
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ObjectiveTo explore the relationship between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) expression in gastric carcinoma (GC), and analyze their correlations with clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes of patients.MethodsThe two-step immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of PPARγ and PGC-1 in 179 cases of GC, and 108 cases of matched normal gastric mucosa. Besides, 16 cases of fresh GC specimens and corresponding normal gastric mucosa were detected for PGC-1 expression with Western blotting.ResultsThe positive rates of PPARγ and PGC-1 expression were significantly lower in GC (54.75%, 49.16%) than in normal gastric mucosa (70.37%, 71.30%), respectively (P<0.05). The decreased expression of PGC-1 in GC was confirmed in our Western blot analysis (P=0.004). PPARγ and PGC-1 expressions were related to Lauren’s types of GC (P<0.05). Positive correlation was found between PPARγ and PGC-1 expression in GC (rk=0.422, P<0.001). The survival time of PPARγ negative and positive patients was 36.6±3.0 vs. 38.5±2.7 months, and no statistical difference was found between the 5-year survival rates of two groups (34.4% vs. 44.1%, P=0.522, log-rank test); the survival time of PGC-1 negative and positive patients was 36.2±2.8 vs. 39.9±2.9 months, while no statistical difference was found between the 5-year survival rates of the two groups (32.0% vs. 48.2%, P=0.462, log-rank test)ConclusionsDecreased expression of PPARγ and PGC-1 in GC was related to the Lauren’s classification. Their expressions in GC were positively correlated, indicating that their functions in gastric carcinogenesis may be closely related.
Recombinant adenovirus-p53 (Gendicine) sensitizes a pancreatic carcinoma cell line to radiation
Jinluan Li, Jianji Pan, Xianggao Zhu, Ying Su, Lingling Bao, Sufang Qiu, Changyan Zou, Yong Cai, Junxin Wu, Ivan W.K. Tham
2013, 25(6): 715-721. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.11.12
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ObjectiveIn this study, we examine the effects of recombinant adenovirus-p53 (rAd-p53) on the pancreatic carcinoma cell line SW1990. Specifically, we determine if expression of rAd-p53 sensitizes these cells to radiation.MethodsFollowing transfection of SW1990 cells with rAd-p53, we measured expression of P53, P21 and Bax by immunocytochemistry. Both transfected and control cell lines were irradiated with a range of doses, and the survival fractions (SF) were calculated. Dose survival curves were constructed and modeled for comparison.ResultsTransfection of SW1990 cells with rAd-p53 resulted in increased expression of P53, P21 and Bax in a time-dependent manner. At 96 h after transfection, 89.92% of cells expressed P53, 56.8% expressed P21, and 76.50% expressed Bax. The SF following radiation was lower in the rAd-p53 transfected cells compared to the control cells, suggesting that rAd-p53 sensitizes SW1990 cells to radiation (D0 for the experimental and control groups was 2.199 and 2.462, respectively).ConclusionsUse of the adenoviral vector is an effective means of transfecting SW1990 cells with wild-type P53, and this sensitizes the cell line to irradiation. This work suggests that combining rAd-p53 with radiation therapy in pancreatic cancer may be therapeutically beneficial.
Spectral CT imaging as a new quantitative tool? Assessment of perfusion defects of pulmonary parenchyma in patients with lung cancer
Ying-Shi Sun, Xiao-Yan Zhang, Yong Cui, Lei Tang, Xiao-Ting Li, Ying Chen, Xiao-Peng Zhang
2013, 25(6): 722-728. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.01
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ObjectiveThis study investigated the capability of dual-energy spectral computed tomography (CT) to quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion defects that are induced by central lung cancer.MethodsThirty-two patients with central lung cancer underwent CT angiography using spectral imaging. A univariate general linear model was conducted to analyze the variance of iodine concentration/CT value with three factors of lung fields. A paired t-test was used to compare iodine concentrations and CT values between the distal end of lung cancer and the corresponding area in the contralateral normal lung.ResultsIodine concentrations increased progressively in the far, intermediate and near ground sides in the normal lung fields at 0.60±0.28, 0.93±0.27 and 1.25±0.38 mg/mL, respectively (P<0.001). The same trend was observed for the CT values [–(840.64±49.08), –(812.66±50.85) and –(760.83±89.17) HU, P<0.001]. The iodine concentration (0.70±0.42 mg/mL) of the lung field in the distal end of lung cancer was significantly lower than the corresponding area in the contralateral normal lung (1.19±0.62 mg/mL) (t=–7.23, P<0.001). However, the CT value of lung field in the distal end of lung cancer was significantly higher than the corresponding area in the contralateral normal lung [–(765.29±93.34) HU vs. –(800.07±76.18) HU, t=3.564, P=0.001].ConclusionsSpectral CT imaging based on the spectral differentiation of iodine is feasible and can quantitatively evaluate pulmonary perfusion and identify perfusion defects that are induced by central lung cancer. Spectral CT seems to be a promising technique for the simultaneous evaluation of both morphological and functional lung information.
Home visits in brain tumor patient: how nurse and family members cooperate in tumor patient’s family self-care
Liwei Lang, Zhiyue Yan, Hailiang Tang
2013, 25(6): 729-734. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.02
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PurposesWe reported the roles and functions of nurses in home visits for brain tumor patients using the family health assessment guide in the study.MethodsOne patient of brain glioma was chosen as the case illustration. The nurses assessed the patients’ situation, their families and living environment individually. All these factors were analyzed together.ResultsThe nurses then implemented their knowledge and skills to adopt different measures in different conditions, investigated the patients’ health problems and carried out personalized effective actions.ConclusionsNurses should put effort into community nursing to allow patients to live in a safe environment, to satisfy the health needs of human being and their needs for health knowledge, and enhance their self-care abilities.
Prognostic relevance of number and ratio of metastatic lymph nodes in resected carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater
Jianguo Zhou, Qian Zhang, Peng Li, Yi Shan, Dongbing Zhao, Jianqiang Cai
2013, 25(6): 735-742. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.03
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ObjectivesTo explore the prognostic relevance of the number and ratio of metastatic lymph nodes in resected Carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater (CAV).MethodsThe clinical data of 155 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for cancer of the ampulla of Vater between January 1990 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used in survival analysis and Log rank method in comparison. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model.ResultsAmong these 155 patients, the in-hospital mortality rate was 4.5%, lymph node positive disease was 21.3%, and the 5-year survival rate was 51.6%. Patients with a lymph node ratio (LNR) >20% were more likely to have tumor differentiation, depth of duodenal involvement, depth of pancreatic invasion, T-stage and TNM-Stage. The number of the metastatic lymph nodes is important prognostic factors of the CAV. Univariate analysis showed that the factors associated with the prognosis included tumor size (P=0.036), tumor differentiation (P=0.019), LNR (P=0.032), number of metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.024), lymph node metastasis (P=0.03), depth of pancreatic invasion (P=0.001), T-stage (P=0.002), TNM stage (P=0.001), elevated CA 19-9 (P=0.000), and jaundice (P=0.021). Multivariate analysis showed that the factors associated with the prognosis were the number of metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.032; RR: 1.283; 95% CI: 1.022-1.611), tumor size (P=0.043; RR: 1.736; 95% CI: 1.017-2.963), and elevated CA 19-9 (P=0.003; RR: 3.247; 95% CI: 1.504-7.010).ConclusionsLNR is a useful factor for predicting the prognosis of the radical treatment for CAV, whereas the number of metastatic lymph nodes is the most important factor. Further research on the locations, number, and LNR will be clinically meaningful to improve survival in patients with CAV.
Clinical significance of serum miR-21 in breast cancer compared with CA153 and CEA
Jianjian Gao, Qingyun Zhang, Jianjun Xu, Lijuan Guo, Xuefeng Li
2013, 25(6): 743-748. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.04
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ObjectiveMicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to be a key regulator of carcinogenesis. There were few reports about the comparison of serum miR-21 with conventional tumor markers. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of circulating miR-21 as a tumor marker in breast cancer (BC) and compare it with CA153 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).MethodsCirculating miR-16 and miR-21 were amplified and quantitatively detected by real-time PCR in 89 BC patients and 55 healthy controls. The levels of CA153 and CEA were measured through electrochemiluminescence assays. Then the sensitivity in diagnosis of BC was compared among miR-21, CA153 and CEA.ResultsThe level of serum miR-21 was significantly higher in BC patients than controls (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of miR-21 were 87.6% and 87.3%, respectively, whereas the sensitivities of CEA and CA153 were only 22.47% and 15.73%.ConclusionsCompared with CEA and CA153, serum miR-21 has a higher sensitivity in diagnosis of BC. Although not correlated with the status of ER, PR and clinical stages, serum miR-21 may be a potential diagnostic indicator for BC, especially for the early stage.
Clinical antiangiogenic effect of recombinant adenovirus-p53 combined with hyperthermia for advanced cancer
Xiaofan Li, Shaowen Xiao, Yongheng Li, Shanwen Zhang
2013, 25(6): 749-755. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.05
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ObjectiveTo assess the safety and clinical antiangiogenic effect of recombinant adenovirus-p53 (rAd-p53) combined with hyperthermia plus or not plus radiotherapy in advanced cancer.MethodsExpression of Vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) after intratumoral injection of rAd-p53 was assayed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) imaging. Forty-four patients with advanced cancer were enrolled into this clinical study. The patients were intratumorally injected with rAd-p53 (Gendicine) at a dose of 1×1012 vp once a week, with a total of 4-54 (mean 7.7) times. Total of 4-29 (mean 8.5) times of hyperthermia was given to the patients. Among the 44 patients, 30 patients were concurrently added with radiotherapy of a total dose 30-76 Gy/15-38 f/3-8 w (mean 58 Gy).ResultsBefore and after intratumoral injection of rAd-p53, the VEGF IHC positive cell scores were 2.80 and 1.50, respectively (P=0.031). The treatment of rAd-p53 combined with hyperthermia plus or not plus radiotherapy in advanced cancer achieved CR rate of 13.60% (6/44), and PR rate of 29.6% (13/44), and thus the effective rate was 43.2%. In addition to 6 patients with CR, 19 patients (19/38, 50.0%) had low density area (LDA) of more than 50% area on CT image within tumor indicating tumor tissue necrosis.ConclusionsOur data indicate that rAd-p53 inhibits VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and promotes tumor necrosis and shrinkage induced by hyperthermia plus or not plus radiotherapy in advanced cancer.
Breast cancer therapy by laser-induced Coulomb explosion of gold nanoparticles
Muhammad Gul Bahar Ashiq, Mohammad Alam Saeed, Bashir Ahmad Tahir, Noorddin Ibrahim, Muhammad Nadeem
2013, 25(6): 756-761. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.08
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ObjectiveLaser-induced Coulomb explosion of gold nanoparticles for breast cancer has been studied by nanophotolysis technique. This study aimed to investigate whether laser-induced bubble formation due to Coulomb explosion can provide an effective approach for selective damage of breast cancer with gold nanoparticles.MethodNumerical method involves laser-induced Coulomb explosion of gold nanoparticles. Different parameters related to nanophotolysis such as laser fluence, tumor depth, cluster radius, laser pulse duration, and bubble formation is studied numerically. Numerical simulation was performed using Mat lab.ResultsThe gold nanoparticles of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 nm in radius could penetrate into tumor 1.14, 1.155, 1.189, 1.20 and 1.22 cm in depth respectively. The maximum penetration depth in tumor could be obtained with nanoparticles of 50 nm radius. Short laser pulse of 40 ns with nanoparticles of 10 nm radius could penetrate into tumor 1.14 cm in depth. Bubbles with a radius of 9 µm could effectively kill breast cancer cells without damaging healthy ones. The bubble radius increased from 4 to 9 µm with an increase in pulse duration in the range of 10 to 30 ns.ConclusionsGold nanoparticles with increasing radius and bubble formation for selective damage of breast cancer cells are successfully probed. The present calculated results are compared with other experimental findings, and good correlation is found between the present work and previous experimental values. It was demonstrated that bubble formation in tumor may further increase the efficacy of breast cancer treatment.
Nutritional assessment with different tools in leukemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Boshi Wang, Xia Yan, Jingjing Cai, Yu Wang, Peng Liu
2013, 25(6): 762-769. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.09
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ObjectiveCorrect nutritional assessment is essential for leukemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study aimed to investigate the best nutritional assessment method for leukemia patients after HSCT, and find the possible nutritional risk of the patients during the transplantation process in order to intervene in the patients with nutritional risks and undernourished patients timely, so that the entire transplantation process could be successfully completed.MethodsA prospective study was performed in 108 leukemia patients after HSCT, and different nutritional assessment methods, including nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002), mini nutritional assessment (MNA), subjective globe assessment (SGA) and malnutritional universal screening tools (MUST), were used. The associations between nutritional status of these patients and nutritional assessment methods were analyzed.ResultsA total of 108 patients completed SGA, and 99 patients completed NRS2002, MNA and MUST. During the treatment process, 85.2% of the patients lost weight, wherein, 50% lost weight greater than 5%, and 42.6% had significantly reduced food intake. For nutritional risk assessment, the positive rates of NRS2002, MNA and MUST were 100%, 74.7% and 63.6%, respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) among the positive rates of NRS2002, MNA and MUST. In undernutrition assessment, the positive rate of SGA (83.3%) was significantly higher than that of MNA (17.2%) (P<0.05), and the incidence rate of nutritional risk among leukemia patients ≤30 years old was greater than that of patients >30 years old (P<0.05).ConclusionsPatients with leukemia were in poor nutritional status during and after HSCT. The leukemia patients ≤30 years old had a greater incidence rate of nutritional risk. As nutritional risk screening tool, the specificity of NRS2002 is not high, but it can be used for evaluating nutritional deficiencies. MNA is a good nutritional risk screening tool, but not an adequate tool for nutritional assessment. If assessment of undernutrition is necessary, the combination of all these screening tools and clinical laboratory indicators should be applied to improve accuracy.
The effect of beta-elemene on alpha-tubulin polymerization in human hepatoma HepG2 cells
Jielin Zhang, Yuqiu Mao, Li Hou, Xiaonan Cui
2013, 25(6): 770-776. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.12
Abstract(654) FullText HTML (566) PDF 662KB(0)
ObjectiveTo investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and alpha-tubule of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells.MethodsCell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Cell cycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of alpha-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of alpha-tubulin and the polymerization of tubulin.ResultsBeta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner; FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cell cycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated alpha-tublin at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner.ConclusionsBeta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells and induce cell apoptosis, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of alpha-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.
Case Report
Locally recurrent penile apocrine carcinoma initially diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma of colon
Ok-Jun Lee, Seok-Joong Yun, Wun-Jae Kim, Song-Yi Choi, Ho-Chang Lee, Hyung-Geun Song, Sung-Nam Lim, Ki-Hyeong Lee, Seung-Taik Kim, Hye-Suk Han
2013, 25(6): 777-780. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.11
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Apocrine carcinoma is a rare malignant adnexal neoplasm. The differential diagnosis between apocrine carcinoma and cutaneous metastasis is often difficult. Here, we report a case of locally recurrent penile apocrine carcinoma initially diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma of the colon. A 75-year-old man with a history of surgical resection due to sigmoid colon cancer and penile metastasis two years prior to this study presented with a nodule at the left penile base. He underwent a wide local resection of the penile mass under a suggested preoperative diagnosis of extra-mammary Paget’s disease (EMPD) associated with previous sigmoid colon cancer. However, the previously and currently resected penile masses were identified as primary apocrine carcinoma upon hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemical staining. Although the incidence is extremely rare, both clinicians and pathologists should be alert to the possibility of synchronous double primary apocrine carcinoma in cancer patients with malignant cutaneous lesions.
A “Stem Cells in Cancer” special issue in Translational Cancer Research
Nancy Q. Zhong, Min Shen
2013, 25(6): 781-781. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.06
Abstract(241) FullText HTML (155) PDF 76KB(2)
TLCR is endorsed by the Spanish Lung Cancer Group (SLCG): new horizons for strong academic collaboration in lung cancer
Grace Li
2013, 25(6): 782-783. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.07
Abstract(247) FullText HTML (153) PDF 172KB(0)
Highlights in focus issue on prostate cancer
Eunice X. Xu
2013, 25(6): 784-785. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.1000-9604.2013.12.10
Abstract(226) FullText HTML (142) PDF 93KB(0)